Sorghum Farming ~ Sorghum is an important staple food crop commonly grown by resource-poor farmers in the semiarid tropics. In Ghana, it is largely grown as a rain fed crop by subsistence farmers in the northern savanna zones. Sorghum is a very versatile crop and its ability to perform in areas, where both rainfall and other conditions have proved hostile to other cereals, makes it an extremely important commodity in providing food for many people in northern Ghana.
Sorghum grains are ground for flour, which is used for making porridge, ugali or for brewing, Young growing crop may also be used as fodder by feeding it to animals directly after wilting for some time or making silage.
Ecological Requirements for Sorghum Farming in Ghana
Sorghum has a well-developed rooting system and an ability to roll up its leaves during hot weather. These qualities make the crop drought resistant. Rainfall of 420 mm — 630 mm per annum is adequate for good growth and production, hence the crop grows well in areas below 1500 m above sea level. At higher altitudes, poor yields are obtained and the crop is attacked by pests such as shoot fly and downy mildew disease. The crop requires fairly fertile and well drained soils.
Sorghum Varieties in Ghana
Sorghum varieties are also characterized by seed colour and taste, In this connection, there are varieties which are white in colour and palatable and those that are brown or red and are bitter. There are two notably improved varieties grown in Ghana, these are:
This variety was selected in western Ghana and is suitable for all the areas around the shores of Lake Victoria. Its seeds are brown and matures in about four months.
This variety was selected after crossing dobbs with a variety from Swaziland. It has brown seeds and matures in about 3% months. There are also other varieties being developed by Research Stations. The research is based on characteristics such as taste, disease and pest resistance and yields. Varieties with compact panicles and goose neck have some resistance to birds’ damage.
Sorghum Farming in Ghana – Other Sorghum Varieties
E6518: Matures in about seven-and-half months. The plant also attains a height of 3m This variety is suitable for fodder.
E1291: Matures in about five months. It grows to 1.7m. The variety is suitable for food and fodder.
Ikinyaruka: Matures in 160 days. The variety is suitable for both food and fodder. It grows to a height of 1.7 metres.
BJ28: Matures in 110 days. It grows to 2.5 metres. The variety is good for food and fodder.
Selection and Preparation of Sorghum Planting Materials
The seeds are prepared by threshing the dry heads, winnowing and seed-dressing.
Sorghum Farming in Ghana – Field Operations
(a) Land preparation
For both forage and food varieties of sorghum, the land should be prepared at the end of the rains
Planting is normally done by broadcasting the seeds on the firmly prepared seedbed. Sorghum is usually sown together with other crops especially maize and beans. It can also be planted in pure stands at a spacing of 60 cm — 15 cm. It should be sown at the onset of the rains.
(c) Fertiliser application
Fertilisers are not commonly used in growing sorghum, however it responds well to farm-yard manure on moist soils.
A sorghum field should be kept weed-free especially in the early stages of growth.
Sorghum Farming in Ghana – Pests and Disease Control
Birds are the main cause of crop loss in sorghum. The most devastating species is the Sudan Dioch (Quelea Quelea aethiopica). Other birds that eat sorghum are weavers, starling and bishop’s birds. Sorghum has natural quality which keep birds away, such as persistent bitter tasting coats, found in coloured grains.
Goose necked varieties are also slightly resistant to birds attack, The Ministry of Agriculture has a quelea control unit, which kills large numbers of birds using ﬂame throwers, explosives or poison sprays in their breeding colonies.
(ii) Sorghum shoot ﬂy (Antherigona varia)
The adult ﬂy lays eggs on the underside of very young plants. After hatching, the young larvae enters the funnel and moves down to feed on the young stem, killing the young shoot, Several tillers also appear but they may also be attacked. Control is mostly done by early planting, closed season and application of insecticides.
(iii) Stem borers (Busseolafusca)
There are three main species of stem borers which attack sorghum. Busseolafmca, the common maize stalk borer is easy to control because it feeds in the funnels, before moving down to feed on developing tissues.
Application of insecticides kills it. Chilo zonellus is difﬁcult to control because it has no distinct population peaks. Young plants may be attacked any time. Sesamia calamistis bores holes straight into the centre of the stem. Attacks occur only occasionally.
Stem borers are controlled by use of insecticides and proper disposal of crop remains after harvesting.
Sorghum is attacked by both leaf and inﬂorescence diseases. Some of the most important leaf diseases include:
Leaf blight (Helminthosporium turcicum)
Anthracnose (Collezotrichum graminicola)
Sooty stripe (Ramulispora sorghi)
Diseases of the inﬂorescence include the following:
Loose smut (Sphacelozheca cruenta)
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana)
Leaf diseases are effectively controlled by growing improved varieties which show varietal resistance. Smuts are controlled by seed dressing.
Sorghum Farming in Ghana – Harvesting
Sorghum for seed production should be harvested at maturity stage while that meant for fodder can be cut when still green and fresh. It is ready for harvesting, three to four months after planting, The heads are also cut off using a sharp knife, after which they are sun dried. The dried sorghum is then threshed, winnowed and stored.
To make silage, start harvesting when the grain is at milky and hardening stage. For dual-purpose sorghum, cut the head with a knife or use a combine harvester.
Sorghum Farming in Ghana – Yields
The yields range from 500-1500 kg per hectare but with good husbandry yields of 3000 kg per hectare could be achieved. Sorghum can be rationed for one or two seasons.
Sorghum Farming in Ghana – Marketing
The crop is marketed through the National Cereals and Produce Board. Private buyers also purchase sorghum directly from farmers.
Sorghum Farming in Ghana – Advantages of Sorghum over maize and other pasture grasses
It can grow well in both high and low potential areas where maize cannot do well.
As a fodder crop, it can also be used in place of maize for making silage and grain and even as a fresh chopped forage for animals.
Sorghum can also withstand dry conditions (600mm annual rainfall) and remain green at very low moisture level.
Sorghum can still do well in very poor soils where maize, nappier and other cereals cannot grow.
The lower leaves of sorghum do not dry as the plant matures, they remain green thus retain a higher crude protein content than maize.
Sorghum can grow again after harvesting the grain. Therefore, the farmers reduces the cost of replanting, land preparation.